In a separate paper, we reported the results of a confirmatory factor analysis done on the eight dating violence questions included in our study, which predicted that the two sexual violence questions would load onto one factor, the four psychological abuse questions would load onto one factor, and finally that the two physical violence questions including threats of physical violence would load onto a single factor Nemeth et al. That analysis showed that all of the factor loadings were significant in the hypothesized direction, suggesting that the variables loaded onto the proper latent variables sexual, psychological, and physical dating violence types.
For subjects who indicated they experienced any given dating violence type, they were then asked if 1 they experienced the violence in their last three relationships reported on earlier in the survey and any additional relationships beyond their most recent three; 2 the number of times they experienced each violence type; and 3 the age at first occurrence. For the two questions that addressed sexual violence, we asked about whether alcohol consumption was involved partner, self, both, neither. Confidence intervals and relative standard errors RSE were computed for the prevalence estimates.
Among subjects reporting dating violence, we then summarized the number of times the dating violence occurred, the number of partners the dating violence occurred with, and the age at first occurrence. Most subjects reported heterosexual orientation A total of Among females, psychological dating violence rates were: Among males, psychological dating violence rates were: In contrast to our studies on adults where most women and men indicated they had only one abusive partner [ 29 , 38 ], teens tended to report that more than one partner perpetrated dating violence toward them.
Among females who reported dating violence, more than one-third indicated that they had experienced the dating violence from two or more partners, as follows: A sizable proportion of males who experienced dating violence also said they had two or more partners who perpetrated the violence, as follows: Among female and males reporting violence, dating violence was rarely reported as an isolated incident. Dating violence was commonly experienced as 2 to 5 occurrences of each dating violence type. Namely, for females, Some dating violence types tended to occur at earlier ages than other dating violence types.
For example, among females reporting dating violence, Our retrospective query approach included memory prompts, such asking subjects to remember what year they were in high school when they began and ended a relationship, to facilitate recall of relationship start and stop times and dating violence exposure. Across age 13 to 19, in our sample, Our study was not powered to statistically compare prevalence rates between males and females. Our findings corroborate results from prior studies showing higher rates of sexual violence victimization in females compared to males and similar rates of psychological abuse among adolescent females and males in dating relationships [ 1 , 4 , 7 , 15 ].
In contrast to some prior studies that have shown a general gender symmetry trend for physical dating violence victimization among adolescents[ 7 ], our study showed a higher rate of physical violence among males While these gender differences were observed in our study, we caution readers about over-interpreting for two reasons: Lending support to this idea, prior studies have shown that males are more likely than females to report physically injuring a date 7.
Our findings on the age at first dating violence occurrence, number of occurrences, and number of abusive partners add to our understanding of how dating violence unfolds during the teen years. Females and males rarely reported an isolated incident of dating violence.
The age at first occurrence tended to be similar for males and females, with a few exceptions. Females tended to report controlling behavior earlier than males, and males tended to report put down and name calling earlier than females. In general, the first occurrence of pressure to have sex, and threats and physical harm tended to occur later than first occurrences of psychological dating violence such as controlling behavior, or name calling. Our study results must be considered within the context of its limitations.
Studies have shown higher rates of dating violence among African American compared to White adolescents [ 1 , 8 ].
Our dating violence prevalence results from a predominantly White sample may therefore be conservative. Second, males in our sample were under-represented. Third, with a response rate of Unfortunately, we did not have information on non-responders; therefore an assessment of response bias was not possible. It is not possible to determine whether those who responded to the survey were more or less likely to have a history of teen dating violence compared to non-responders.
However, in our study of adults where we had limited data on non-respondents, we performed a propensity score analysis to estimate the probability that a woman responded to the survey, based on age, length of enrollment in the health plan, and health care utilization in the year prior to the survey [ 29 ]. This analysis showed that the estimated probability of survey participation did not differ for women exposed to intimate partner violence compared to women who reported no intimate partner violence estimated probability 0.
Teen Dating Violence|Intimate Partner Violence|Violence Preventtion|Injury Center|CDC
Even with this detailed assessment approach, it is possible that subjects mis-estimated dating violence they experienced [ 25 ]. We used a query approach similar to the timeline follow-back interview method to facilitate recall of dating violence victimization experiences in a sample of males and females.
Our study documented dating violence victimization experiences across the teen years, from age 13 to 19, including dating violence types, frequency, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence—providing important information for health professionals and others to respond to a very common problem among teens, even those at higher socioeconomic levels who go on to college.
Our results point to the need to amplify primary and secondary prevention efforts; school-based programs have been effective in reducing dating violence occurrence in adolescents [ 1 , 21 , 42 - 49 ].
As well, with females experiencing sexual pressure at high rates and by multiple partners, there must be a concerted effort to discuss sexual health, including healthy relationships, healthy sexual boundaries, and consent; health care settings offer a safe, confidential place for such conversations.
The authors declare they have no competing financial or non-financial interests. MA helped design the survey, conducted the data analysis and critically reviewed the manuscript. JMN helped conceptualize the study and survey, added to the statistical analysis, and critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 8; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U. Methods A total of subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse.
Conclusions Our study adds information to a substantial, but still growing, body of literature about dating violence frequency, age of occurrence, and number of abusive partners among adolescents. Abuse, Violence, Sexual abuse, Adolescence, Young adults. Methods Data for the study were collected as part of a feasibility study for testing the study questionnaire. Table 1 Dating Violence Questions. Has any partner you've been involved with between ages 13 and 19 ever… Physical …hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?
Sexual … pressured you to participate in sexual activities by begging or arguing with you, or by threatening to end your relationship? Psychological … tried to control your behavior by always checking up on you, telling you who your friends could be, or telling you what you could do and when? Open in a separate window.
Table 2 Subject Characteristics. Table 3 Prevalence of Dating Violence. Table 4 Dating Violence Chronicity Female respondents. Table 5 Dating Violence Chronicity Male respondents. Number of abusive partners In contrast to our studies on adults where most women and men indicated they had only one abusive partner [ 29 , 38 ], teens tended to report that more than one partner perpetrated dating violence toward them. Number of dating violence occurrences Among female and males reporting violence, dating violence was rarely reported as an isolated incident. Age at first occurrence from age 13 to 19 Some dating violence types tended to occur at earlier ages than other dating violence types.
Conclusions We used a query approach similar to the timeline follow-back interview method to facilitate recall of dating violence victimization experiences in a sample of males and females. Competing interests The authors declare they have no competing financial or non-financial interests. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: The Safe Dates Project: Theoretical basis, evaluation design, and selected baseline findings. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Long-term impact of adolescent dating violence on the behavioral and psychological health of male and female youth.
Date violence and date rape among adolescents: Associations with disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. Severe dating violence and quality of life among South Carolina high school students.
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Am J of Prev Med. Dating violence, sexual assault, and suicide attempts among urban teenagers.
Teen Dating Violence
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality. Measuring sex differences in violence victimization and perpetration within date and same-sex peer relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Physical dating violence among high school students - United States, Teens receive messages about how to behave in relationships from peers, adults, and the media.
All too often these examples suggest that violence in a relationship is normal, but violence is never acceptable. Violence is related to certain risk factors.
The risk of having unhealthy relationships increases for teens who:. Communicating with your partner, managing uncomfortable emotions like anger and jealousy, and treating others with respect are a few ways to keep relationships healthy and nonviolent. Dating violence can be prevented when teens, families, organizations, and communities work together to implement effective prevention strategies. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content.
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What are the consequences of dating violence? Why does dating violence happen? Teen Dating Violence Prevention Infographic The infographic highlights the importance of healthy relationships throughout life. Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: June 11, Page last updated: June 11, Content source: