However, broken-rail protection is only guaranteed on one of the two rails of a track. Once the Zone Controller has determined, based on track circuit information and train localization, that the CBTC train is a single discrete train, they use this information to grant movement authorities based on conditions ahead. The CBTC Zone Controller functions then as an overlay which only provides safe separation of trains and cannot do so without interaction from the Wayside Legacy Signaling system.
With the new system, signals and interlockings are still required, their job being done better by relay interlockings or Solid State Interlocking controllers. The location of the train is also used to inform passengers of arrival times. Only newer-generation rolling stock that were first delivered in the early s are designed for CBTC operation. These rolling stock include the Rs ,   Rs ,   and 64 Rs fleet numbers — Therefore, transit planners are viewing the installation of CBTC as a way to free up track capacity for more trains to run, and have shorter headways between trains.
However, even without CBTC, the system is currently retrofitted to operate at frequencies of up to 60 trains per hour tph on the IND Queens Boulevard Line 30 tph on each of the local and express pairs of tracks made possible by the Jamaica—th Street terminal, which has four sidings past the terminal for each set of tracks and 33 tph on the IRT Flushing Line. The chairman of the Board of Transportation , Sidney H. Bingham, in , first proposed a conveyor belt-like system for the shuttle line,   but the plan was canceled due to its high cost.
Signaling of the New York City Subway
The train was equipped with a telephone system to keep voice communication with human dispatchers at the two shuttle terminals. At each station there was a cabinet that housed 24 relay systems that made up electronic dispatchers. The relays controlled the train's starting, acceleration, braking, and stopping, as well as the opening and closing of the car doors.
When the commands cease, the doors would promptly close. When entering stations, the train passed through a series of detectors, which caused a series of tripper arms at trackside to go into the open position if the train was going at the correct speed. If the train was going too quickly, the tripper arms would stay upright and the train's brakes would automatically be set.
The automation of the shuttle was opposed by the president of the Transport Workers Union, Michael J. Quill , who pledged to fight the project and called the device "insane. The R22s were fitted with different types of brake shoes, to see which one would negotiate the rail joints better. It was eventually found that the automated trip took 10 seconds longer than manual operation about 95 seconds, compared to 85 seconds.
As the tests on the Sea Beach Line progressed, grade time stops were added to ensure safety on the line, and on the 42nd Street Shuttle. The train was dubbed SAM, and was to operate on Track 4 of the shuttle line. In the afternoon of January 4, ,  the three-car automated train began service, with a ceremony. The train had scheduled to begin service on December 15, , but Quill threatened a walkout at all of the city's municipal and privately-owned transit if the train ran.
These lines were chosen because the train services on all five lines, as well as the 42nd Street Shuttle, did not regularly share tracks with any other services. The rest of the system included a myriad of instances where several different services merged and shared tracks, and automating the rest of the system would have been logistically difficult. The Canarsie and Myrtle Avenue Lines were later cut from the plans, but it was expected that the other three lines would be automated if the test was successful. A severe fire at the Grand Central station on April 21, , destroyed the demonstration train.
The train on Track 1 was saved when the motorman saw smoke, and reversed the train. The basements of nearby buildings were damaged. The two lines with the initial installations of CBTC were both chosen because their respective tracks are relatively isolated from the rest of the subway system, and they have fewer junctions along the route.
The Canarsie Line, on which the L service runs, was chosen for CBTC pilot testing because it is a self-contained line that does not operate in conjunction with other subway lines in the New York City subway system. The mile length of the Canarsie Line is also shorter than the majority of other subway lines. As a result, the signaling requirements and complexity of implementing CBTC are easier to install and test than the more complicated subway lines that have junctions and share trackage with other lines.
Initial testing began in ,  and installation was mostly completed by December , with all CBTC-equipped R subway cars in service by that date. This enabled the agency to operate up to 26 trains per hour up from the May service level of 15 trains per hour, an achievement that would not be possible without the CBTC technology or a redesign of the previous automatic block signal system. The Flushing Line was chosen for the second implementation of CBTC because it is also a self-contained line with no direct connections to other subway lines currently in use, aside from the merging of express and local services.
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The — capital budget provided funding for CBTC installation on the Flushing Line, with scheduled installation completion in The installation is being done by Thales Group. The first train of R cars began operating in passenger service on November 9, As part of the — Capital Program, there will be The installation was a joint venture between Siemens and Thales Group. Both of these suppliers would install the new signaling system on the tracks themselves. Seven of 8 interlockings in the first-phase section of the line would be upgraded under this contract.
Of the units set to be converted for CBTC-compatibility, will receive new onboard equipment, which NYCT contractors will install in of these units. Planning for phase one started in and was complete by February , with major engineering work following in November It will get two new electrical substations to support CBTC upgrades. In March , New York City Transit Authority president Andy Byford said that he had created a new plan for resignaling the subway with CBTC, which would only take 10 to 15 years, compared to the previous estimate of 40 years.
The plan involved upgrading signals on the system's five most heavily used physical lines, as well as accelerating the deployment of ISIM-B to all subway lines that did not already have either automatic train supervision or CBTC. The ultra-wideband signals would have the added benefit of allowing passengers to use cellphones while between stations, instead of the current setup where passengers could only get cellphone signals within the stations themselves.
The same year, it was reported that full implementation of CBTC systemwide might take 40 to 50 years. Following the subway system's state of emergency that year , MTA Chairman Joe Lhota described the timeline of CBTC installation as "simply too long," instead proposing ways to speed up the work and hosting the Genius Transit Challenge to find quicker ways to upgrade the signals. Some of the proposals included a wireless signaling system, a completely new concept that had never been tested in any other railroad or subway network. One of the proposals used ultra-wideband signaling technology.
The other proposal entailed installing sensors and cameras on trains, with minimal installations on tracks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. New York City Subway chaining. The R is the system's second automated rolling stock. The R is the system's third automated rolling stock and second fully automated fleet.
Tracks of the New York City Subway 16th ed. Retrieved September 12, Communications-Based Train Control video. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved September 13, Retrieved May 20, Retrieved April 24, The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, Retrieved July 17, Under the Sidewalks of New York: Retrieved March 14, Retrieved February 12, Decisions Pushed the Subway Into Crisis".
Technology of the New York City Subway - Wikipedia
Retrieved May 9, Retrieved December 10, Retrieved March 30, New York Daily News. Retrieved July 23, Retrieved November 8, Retrieved December 11, Retrieved December 10, — via Twitter. Retrieved April 11, But How Much, and for How Long? Retrieved August 23, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved March 29, Retrieved August 10, Retrieved May 24, Archived from the original PDF on January 29, Retrieved January 23, Archived from the original PDF on February 5, Retrieved July 14, Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved August 6, Subway of the Future". Retrieved January 17, Retrieved January 15, Retrieved April 25, Traffic April 22, ".
Motorman's Run to Disaster". Retrieved June 11, Retrieved January 18, Retrieved January 31, Retrieved January 13, Kawasaki Rail Car, Inc.
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R211 (New York City Subway car)
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