Growth data from million year old fossil corals indicate that Earth years were days in duration in distant times, i. This is an unusual conclusion that is difficult to accept using common sense. Let us name the value of 1. The abovementioned results complement, and thus strengthen the truth of, estimates of the absolute age of the Earth that were determined by radiometric methods. Along with this conclusion, the evolutionary Earth growth constant of 1. According to the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, Earth was formed via accretionary processes involving gases and dust masses that remained after the formation of the Sun.
These processes were largely completed over a time span of 10—20 million years. We do not share this point of view given that our research suggests that Earth has been growing gradually by 1. The Earth growth hypothesis suggested here is not new; it was first suggested at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Since that time, this hypothesis has been actively developing and has modern supporters. However, much of this research was treated as obsolete after the development of plate tectonics theory. The evolutionary Earth growth constant found by us can serve as solid ground to revive the expanding Earth hypothesis. The greatest thinkers of our planet have been fascinated by questions about the origin and evolution of the planetary system and the Sun.
Philosopher Kant and mathematician Laplace along with many astronomers and physicists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tackled this problem. Although much understanding has been gained over the past two centuries, conclusive answers to questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of our solar system are still not clear. In the classical Kant-Laplace hypothesis, angular momentum is the most important characteristic of an isolated mechanical system, which our Sun and its surrounding planets are.
The whole process of planetary evolution, from the initial stage of cosmic nebula to the formation of the Sun and the eight planets, was in strict accordance with angular momentum. The rotation consists of the orbital motion of the planets and the axial rotation of the Sun and the planets. Angular momentum of each planet relative to the center of mass almost coinciding with the center of the Sun is defined as the product of the mass of the planet, its speed, and the distance to the center of rotation, e.
Angular momentum associated with the rotation of the planets around their axes is negligible because of the relatively small masses of the planets and their radii [ 4 ]. How old is the Earth? This is one of the most important concerns for humanity, as the Earth is the cradle of humankind and all living beings. The answer can be found in many scientific reference materials.
Presently, Christian, Islamic, and Judaic scholars insist that the age of the Earth and the universe is not more than to 12, years, and their views are based on religious texts. Importantly, these sacred texts are based on symbolic years and periods. Yet, it is worthwhile to note that even the history of the development of scientific methods for determining the age of the Earth is full of blind alleys and misconceptions. Thomson published a series of works between and devoted to the determination of the age of the Earth.
He assumed that the Earth formed in a liquid state, and then, it began to cool as heat radiated from its surface. Using the theory of heat conduction, he calculated the time required for the Earth to cool to its modern temperature.
Age of the Earth
This hypothesis brought Thomson into dispute with the great naturalist Charles Darwin, who knew that the discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel in would resolve this dispute in the future. American chemist Willard Libby developed the absolute radiocarbon dating method for organic subjects in , and he won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in for his work. Quickly, researchers realized that radioactive elements could work as natural clocks, as radioactive decay adheres to strict time patterns. The majority of evolutionists accept the current estimated age for the Earth and our solar system of 4.
What is this based on? This estimate was derived from the ratios of various lead isotopes found in meteorites. Using this method, the oldest terrestrial rocks have been characterized as being 3. Presently, scientists tend not to argue over the age of the Earth, largely as a result of the continued development of the radiometric dating method and elimination of some of its shortcomings.
However, additional evidence is required in order to determine the age of the Earth accurately. This is because the radiometric method, which indicates an Earth age of 4. In other words, it would be beneficial to determine the age of the Earth on a different basis. As is known from studies of million year old fossil corals, Earth years were days in duration during distant times. This fact was detected through analyses of the growth lines on the bodies of fossil corals, whereby every specific line represents a year, similar to the rings on a cut tree [ 7 , 8 ].
How Old is Earth?
In the past, the Earth rotated faster than it does today. We shall now turn to the physics of solid body rotation to study this phenomenon. Let us consider the main categories of rotational movements and discuss the fundamental law of rotational motion dynamics. The moment of inertia of a body defines the inertia of that body with respect to rotational motion.
The moment of inertia includes the impact of the angular acceleration of a body mass, its geometrical dimensions, location of the mass relative to the axis of rotation, and distribution of the mass in the volume of the body. In the early 20th century, scientists refined the process of radiometric dating. Earlier research had shown that isotopes of some radioactive elements decay into other elements at rates that can be easily predicted.
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- Non-Radiometric Dating of the Age of the Earth: Implications From Fossil Coral Evidence.
- How do geologists use carbon dating to find the age of rocks?.
By examining the existing elements, scientists can calculate the initial quantity, and thus how long it took for the elements to decay, allowing them to determine the age of the rock. Rocks older than 3. Greenland boasts the Isua Supracrustal rocks 3. Samples in Western Australia run 3. Research groups in Australia found the oldest mineral grains on Earth.
These tiny zirconium silicate crystals have ages that reach 4. Their source rocks have not yet been found. The rocks and zircons set a lower limit on the age of Earth of 4.
In an effort to further refine the age of Earth, scientists began to look outward. The material that formed the solar system was a cloud of dust and gas that surrounded the young sun. Gravitational interactions coalesced this material into the planets and moons at roughly the same time. By studying other bodies in the solar system, scientists are able to find out more about the early history of the planet.
The nearest body to Earth, the moon , does not suffer from the resurfacing problems that cover Earth's landscape. As such, rocks from early lunar history should be present on the moon.
How old are your rocks?
The Canyon Diablo meteorite was used because it is both large and representative of a particularly rare type of meteorite that contains sulfide minerals particularly troilite , FeS , metallic nickel - iron alloys, plus silicate minerals. This is important because the presence of the three mineral phases allows investigation of isotopic dates using samples that provide a great separation in concentrations between parent and daughter nuclides. This is particularly true of uranium and lead. Lead is strongly chalcophilic and is found in the sulfide at a much greater concentration than in the silicate, versus uranium.
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Because of this segregation in the parent and daughter nuclides during the formation of the meteorite, this allowed a much more precise date of the formation of the solar disk and hence the planets than ever before. The age determined from the Canyon Diablo meteorite has been confirmed by hundreds of other age determinations, from both terrestrial samples and other meteorites.
This is interpreted as the duration of formation of the solar nebula and its collapse into the solar disk to form the Sun and the planets. This 50 million year time span allows for accretion of the planets from the original solar dust and meteorites. The moon, as another extraterrestrial body that has not undergone plate tectonics and that has no atmosphere, provides quite precise age dates from the samples returned from the Apollo missions.
Rocks returned from the Moon have been dated at a maximum of 4. Martian meteorites that have landed upon Earth have also been dated to around 4. Lunar samples, since they have not been disturbed by weathering, plate tectonics or material moved by organisms, can also provide dating by direct electron microscope examination of cosmic ray tracks. The accumulation of dislocations generated by high energy cosmic ray particle impacts provides another confirmation of the isotopic dates.
Cosmic ray dating is only useful on material that has not been melted, since melting erases the crystalline structure of the material, and wipes away the tracks left by the particles. Altogether, the concordance of age dates of both the earliest terrestrial lead reservoirs and all other reservoirs within the Solar System found to date are used to support the fact that Earth and the rest of the Solar System formed at around 4. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientific dating of the age of the Earth.
Human timeline and Nature timeline. Age of the Solar System.
Age of the Earth - Wikipedia
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