Departments that may respond to these incidents should obtain a copy of this document and review these recommended procedures. These procedures may also provide a basis for fighting fires in any sprinklered building. Issues such as these are best identified and addressed prior to an incident occurring at the protected property via proper preplan inspections. Firefighters must train on sprinklers and fire protection systems before conducting inspections so they understand the differences between systems designed for commercial and residential occupancies.
Some are hidden in unusual locations or are covered by overgrown bushes. Second, determine what the given FDC supplies. Some FDCs supply sprinklers, some supply standpipes, and some supply both. As a result, an inadequate water supply was given to the standpipes on the upper floors, while sprinklers on the lower floors were overpressured. This caused pipes to break, which led to significant water damage to floors not involved in the fire.
The developer felt that having sprinklers, even without a water supply, was better than not having them at all. Hooking Up FDCs come in various shapes and sizes. Which should you hook up to first?
Assuming the building has dual-inlet FDCs, stretch the first line to the first inlet of the standpipe connection, then the second line to the first inlet of the sprinkler connection. At this point, the pump operator is able to supply both the standpipe and the sprinkler connections. As with all operations, be mindful of life safety.
The third line should then go to the second inlet of the standpipe connection, and the fourth line should go to the second inlet of the sprinkler connection. The sewn leather hose tended to burst, so a hose fabricated of leather fastened together with copper rivets and washers was invented by members of Philadelphia 's Humane Hose Company. Around , unlined fire hoses made of circular woven linen yarns began to replace leather hoses. They were certainly much lighter. As the hose fibers, made of flax, became wet, they swelled up and tightened the weave, causing the hose to become watertight.
Unlined hoses, because of their lack of durability, were rapidly replaced with rubber hoses in municipal fire service use. They continued to be used on interior hose lines and hose racks until the s, [ citation needed ] and are still used in some areas for forestry applications. Following the invention of the vulcanization process as a means of curing raw soft rubber into a harder, more useful product, the fire service slowly made the transition from bulky and unreliable leather hose to the unlined linen hose, then to a multi-layer, rubber lined and coated hose with interior fabric reinforcement.
This rubber hose was as bulky, heavy, and stiff as a leather hose, but was not prone to leaking. It also proved more durable than unlined linen hose.
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Its wrapped construction resembled some hoses used today by industry, for example, fuel delivery hoses used to service airliners. Modern fire hoses use a variety of natural and synthetic fabrics and elastomers in their construction. These materials allow the hoses to be stored wet without rotting and to resist the damaging effects of exposure to sunlight and chemicals. Modern hoses are also lighter weight than older designs, and this has helped reduce the physical strain on firefighters. This process makes hoses smaller and somewhat rigid, thus allowing more fire hose to be packed or loaded into the same compartment on a fire fighting apparatus.
There are several types of hose designed specifically for the fire service. Those designed to operate under positive pressure are called discharge hoses. They include attack hose, supply hose, relay hose, forestry hose, and booster hose. Those designed to operate under negative pressure are called suction hoses. Another suction hose, called a soft suction, is actually a short length of fabric-covered, flexible discharge hose used to connect the fire pumper suction inlet with a pressurized hydrant.
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It is not a true suction hose as it cannot withstand a negative pressure. In the past, cotton was the most common natural fiber used in fire hoses, but most modern hoses use a synthetic fiber like polyester or nylon filament. The synthetic fibers provide additional strength and better resistance to abrasion. The fiber yarns may be dyed various colors or may be left natural. Coatings and liners include synthetic rubbers, which provide various degrees of resistance to chemicals, temperature, ozone, ultraviolet UV radiation, mold, mildew, and abrasion.
Different coatings and liners are chosen for specific applications. Hard suction hose consists of multiple layers of rubber and woven fabric encapsulating an internal helix of steel wire. Some very flexible hard suction hose uses a thin polyvinyl chloride cover with a polyvinyl chloride plastic helix. Fire hose is usually manufactured in a plant that specializes in providing hose products to municipal, industrial, and forestry fire departments.
Here is a typical sequence of operations used to manufacture a double jacket, rubber-lined fire hose. In addition to the final pressure testing, each hose is subjected to a variety of inspections and tests at each stage of manufacture. Some of these inspections and tests include visual inspections, ozone resistance tests, accelerated aging tests, adhesion tests of the bond between the liner and inner jacket, determination of the amount of hose twist under pressure, dimensional checks, and many more.
The trend in fire hose construction over the last 20 years has been to use lighter, stronger, lower maintenance materials. This trend is expected to continue in the future as new materials and manufacturing methods evolve. One result of this trend has been the introduction of lightweight supply hoses in diameters never possible before.
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