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From the middle of the 19th century until the post-war era, the mining and export of coal was a dominant industry. At its peak of production in , nearly , men and women were employed in the south Wales coalfield , mining 56 million tons of coal. In the late s and early s, Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment in the UK. The Welsh landscape protected by three national parks and 45 Blue Flag beaches , as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas.

The pound sterling is the currency used in Wales. Numerous Welsh banks issued their own banknotes in the 19th century. The last bank to do so closed in ; since then, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland continue to have the right to issue banknotes in their own countries, the Bank of England has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Wales. However, Wales has not been represented on any coin minted from The A55 expressway has a similar role along the north Wales coast, connecting Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire.

It also links to northwest England, principally Chester. The main north-south Wales link is the A , which runs from Cardiff to Llandudno. Cardiff Airport is the international airport of Wales. Other internal flights operate to northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Welsh Government manages those parts of the British railway network within Wales, through the Transport for Wales Rail train operating company. Cardiff Central is Wales' busiest railway station, with over four times as much passenger traffic as any other station in Wales. Beeching cuts in the s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel connecting with the Irish Sea ports for ferries to Ireland.

All trains in Wales are diesel-powered since no lines have been electrified. Wales has four commercial ferry ports. The Swansea to Cork service was cancelled in , reinstated in March , and withdrawn again in A distinct education system has developed in Wales.

Dating in Wales

The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such as Ruthin , Brecon and Cowbridge. At the end of the day, the wearer of the "not" would be beaten. The University College of Wales opened in Aberystwyth in Cardiff and Bangor followed, and the three colleges came together in to form the University of Wales. The Welsh Department for the Board of Education followed in , which gave Wales its first significant educational devolution.

In —, there were 1, maintained schools in Wales. Historically, Wales was served by smaller 'cottage' hospitals, built as voluntary institutions. The estimated pre and census post population figures recorded for Wales are: The population of Wales doubled from , in to 1,, in and had reached 2,, by Most of the increase came in the coal mining districts, especially Glamorganshire , which grew from 71, in to , in and 1,, in However, there was also large-scale migration into Wales during the Industrial Revolution.

The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of other ethnic groups, [] [] including Italians , who migrated to South Wales. Many of these self-identify as Welsh. The census showed Wales' population to be 3,,, the highest in its history. The UK census was criticised in Wales for not offering 'Welsh' as an option to describe respondents' national identity. Respondents were instructed to "tick all that apply" from a list of options that included Welsh.

The outcome was that No Welsh national identity was indicated by The proportion giving their sole national identity as British was No British national identity was indicated by The census showed Wales to be less ethnically diverse than any region of England: The lowest proportion of White British The proportion born in Wales varies across the country, with the highest percentages in the south Wales valleys and the lowest in mid Wales and parts of the north-east. The total fertility rate TFR in Wales was 1. In his work Archaeologia Britannica Edward Lhuyd , keeper of the Ashmolean Museum , noted the similarity between the two Celtic language families: He argued that the Brythonic languages originated in Gaul France and that the Goidelic languages originated in the Iberian Peninsula.

Lhuyd concluded that as the languages had been of Celtic origin, the people who spoke those languages were Celts. According to a more recent hypothesis, also widely embraced today, Goidelic and Brythonic languages, collectively known as Insular Celtic languages , evolved together for some time separately from Continental Celtic languages such as Gaulish and Celtiberian. From the 18th century, the peoples of Brittany , Cornwall , Ireland , Isle of Man , Scotland and Wales were known increasingly as Celts, and they are regarded as the modern Celtic nations today.

The Bible translations into Welsh helped to maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The Welsh Language Act and the Government of Wales Act provide that the English and Welsh languages be treated on a basis of equality, and both are used as working languages within the National Assembly. Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales and is known by various terms, though none is recognised by professional linguists.

It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh. According to John Davies, Wenglish has "been the object of far greater prejudice than anything suffered by Welsh". The Census showed , people, Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where place names differ in the two languages, both versions are used e.

Under new regulations that came into force in , the Welsh Language Commissioner requires local authorities and Welsh Government to ensure that all new or renewed road signs that use both languages to feature the Welsh language first. During the 20th century, a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than Welsh or English, such as Bengali or Cantonese , established themselves in Wales as a result of immigration.

The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with The Presbyterian Church of Wales was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Wales, with 24, 0. There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs , mainly in the south Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion.

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The remnants of the native Celtic mythology of the pre-Christian Britons was passed down orally, in much-altered form, by the cynfeirdd the early poets. Wales can claim one of the oldest unbroken literary traditions in Europe. The Poets of the Princes were professional poets who composed eulogies and elegies to the Welsh princes while the Poets of the Gentry were a school of poets that favoured the cywydd metre. Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits.

Major developments in 19th-century Welsh literature include Lady Charlotte Guest's translation of the Mabinogion, one of the most important medieval Welsh prose tales of Celtic mythology, into English. The 20th century experienced an important shift away from the stilted and long-winded Victorian Welsh prose, with Thomas Gwynn Jones leading the way with his work Ymadawiad Arthur. Though the inter-war period is dominated by Saunders Lewis , for his political and reactionary views as much as his plays, poetry and criticism.

Thomas was one of the most notable and popular Welsh writers of the 20th century and one of the most innovative poets of his time. The attitude of the post-war generation of Welsh writers in English towards Wales differs from the previous generation, in that they were more sympathetic to Welsh nationalism and to the Welsh language. The change can be linked to the nationalist fervour generated by Saunders Lewis and the burning of the Bombing School on the Lleyn Peninsula in , along with a sense of crisis generated by World War II.

Thomas — was the most important figure throughout the second half of the twentieth century. While he "did not learn the Welsh language until he was 30 and wrote all his poems in English", [] he wanted the Welsh language to be made the first language of Wales, and the official policy of bilingualism abolished. The major novelist in the second half of the twentieth century was Emyr Humphreys born , who during his long writing career published over twenty novels, which surveys the political and cultural history of twentieth-century Wales.

Born near Abergavenny , Williams continued the earlier tradition of writing from a left-wing perspective on the Welsh industrial scene in his trilogy " Border Country " , "Second Generation" , and "The Fight for Manod" He also enjoyed a reputation as a cultural historian. The National Museum [of] Wales was founded by royal charter in and is now a Welsh Government sponsored body. In April , the attractions attached to the National Museum were granted free entry by the Assembly, and this action saw the visitor numbers to the sites increase during — by Aberystwyth is home to the National Library of Wales , which houses some of the most important collections in Wales, including the Sir John Williams Collection and the Shirburn Castle collection.

Many works of Celtic art have been found in Wales. A number of illuminated manuscripts from Wales survive, of which the 8th-century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels are the most notable. The 11th-century Ricemarch Psalter now in Dublin is certainly Welsh, made in St David's , and shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence. The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16th—18th centuries tended to leave the country to work, many of them moving to London or Italy. Richard Wilson —82 is arguably the first major British landscapist.

Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London. By the late 18th century, the popularity of landscape art grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland. Artists from outside Wales were also drawn to paint Welsh scenery, at first because of the Celtic Revival.

Then in the early 19th century, the Napoleonic Wars preventing the Grand Tour to continental Europe, travel through Wales came to be considered more accessible. An Act of Parliament in provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom and the Cardiff School of Art opened in Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but Betws-y-Coed became a popular centre for artists and its artists' colony helped form the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art in Christopher Williams , whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London.

Stephens and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists based respectively in the United States and France. Many Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe. However, the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world. Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff and even after moving to London.

He was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism. The Kardomah Gang was an intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes. South Wales had several notable potteries , one of the first important sites being the Ewenny Pottery in Bridgend , which began producing earthenware in the 17th century.

It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in George which then represented the Kingdom of England and Wales. The daffodil and the leek are both symbols of Wales. The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd George.

The red kite is a national symbol of Welsh wildlife. The Prince of Wales' heraldic badge is also sometimes used to symbolise Wales. The badge, known as the Prince of Wales's feathers , consists of three white feathers emerging from a gold coronet. A ribbon below the coronet bears the German motto Ich dien I serve. Several Welsh representative teams, including the Welsh rugby union, and Welsh regiments in the British Army the Royal Welsh , for example use the badge or a stylised version of it.

There have been attempts made to curtail the use of the emblem for commercial purposes and restrict its use to those authorised by the Prince of Wales. Land of My Fathers is the National Anthem of Wales, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Wales national team as well as the opening of the Welsh Assembly and other official occasions.

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More than 50 national governing bodies regulate and organise their sports in Wales. Although football has traditionally been the more popular sport in north Wales , rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in were replaced in by the four regions: Cardiff Blues , Dragons , Ospreys and Scarlets.

Wales has had its own football league , the Welsh Premier League , since Rugby league in Wales dates back to The Crusaders competed in the top level Super League competition from — A professional Welsh League existed from to Wales has produced several world-class participants of individual and team sports including snooker players Ray Reardon , Terry Griffiths , Mark Williams and Matthew Stevens. Wales also has a tradition of producing world-class boxers.

Wales has hosted several international sporting events. All Welsh television broadcasts are digital. The last of the analogue transmitters ceased broadcasts in April , and Wales became the UK's first digital nation. BBC Cymru Wales is the national broadcaster.

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Its output was mostly Welsh-language at peak hours but shared English-language content with Channel 4 at other times. Since the digital switchover in April , the channel has broadcast exclusively in Welsh. Their remaining output is commissioned from ITV and independent producers. Several regional radio stations broadcast in Welsh: Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers available throughout Britain, unlike in Scotland where many newspapers have rebranded into Scottish-based titles.

The Western Mail is Wales' only national daily newspaper. Magazines published in Welsh and English cover general and specialist subjects. Cambria , a Welsh affairs magazine published bi-monthly in English, has subscribers in over 30 countries. Although both beef and dairy cattle are raised widely, especially in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is more well known for its sheep farming and thus lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking.

Traditional dishes include laverbread made from Porphyra umbilicalis , an edible seaweed ; bara brith fruit bread ; cawl a lamb stew ; cawl cennin leek soup ; Welsh cakes ; and Welsh lamb. Cockles are sometimes served as a traditional breakfast with bacon and laverbread. Although Wales has its own traditional food and has absorbed much of the cuisine of England, Welsh diets now owe more to the countries of India , China and the United States. Wales is often referred to as "the land of song", [] and is notable for its harpists, male choirs, and solo artists.

The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the annual National Eisteddfod. The Llangollen International Eisteddfod echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform. Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by a myriad of societies. The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes. Traditional instruments of Wales include telyn deires triple harp , fiddle, crwth , pibgorn hornpipe and other instruments. Popular bands that emerged from Wales include the Beatles-nurtured power pop group Badfinger in the s, Man and Budgie in the s and the Alarm in the s.

Many groups emerged during the s, led by Manic Street Preachers , followed by the likes of the Stereophonics and Feeder ; notable during this period were Catatonia , Super Furry Animals , and Gorky's Zygotic Mynci who gained popular success as dual-language artists. Male voice choirs emerged in the 19th century and continue today. Originally these choirs where formed as the tenor and bass sections of chapel choirs, and embraced the popular secular hymns of the day.


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Along with the playhouses, there existed mobile companies at visiting fairs, though from most of these travelling theatres settled, purchasing theatres to perform in. Drama in the early 20th century thrived, but the country failed to produce a Welsh National Theatre company. After the Second World War the substantial number of amateur companies that had existed before the outbreak of hostilities reduced by two-thirds. Dancing is a popular pastime in Wales; traditional dances include folk dancing and clog dancing.

The first mention of dancing in Wales is in a 12th-century account by Giraldus Cambrensis , but by the 19th century traditional dance had all but died out; this is attributed to the influence of Nonconformists and their belief that any physical diversion was worthless and satanic, especially mixed dancing. The Welsh Folk Dance Society was founded in ; [] it supports a network of national amateur dance teams and publishes support material.

Contemporary dance grew out of Cardiff in the s; one of the earliest companies, Moving Being, came from London to Cardiff in As well as celebrating many of the traditional religious festivals of Great Britain, such as Easter and Christmas, Wales has its own unique celebratory days. An early festivity was Mabsant when local parishes would celebrate the patron saint of their local church. Commemorating the patron saint of friendship and love, Dydd Santes Dwynwen 's popularity has been increasing recently.

It is celebrated on 25 January in a similar way to St Valentine's Day: Calan Gaeaf , associated with the supernatural and the dead, is observed on 1 November All Saints Day. It has largely been replaced by Hallowe'en. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Wales disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. National Assembly UK Parliament. Wales in the Roman era. Glamorgan and Lower Swansea valley. Local government in Wales.

History of local government in Wales. List of settlements in Wales by population and List of towns in Wales. Tourism in Wales and Agriculture in Wales. List of universities in Wales and List of further education colleges in Wales. Demography of Wales and Demography of the United Kingdom. Languages of Wales , Welsh language , and Welsh English. Mythology Matter of Britain Arthurian legend Mabinogion. Music and performing arts. National symbols of Wales. List of newspapers in Wales. It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural Lloegrwys , "men of Lloegr", being earlier and more common.

The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry Saeson , as today but just as often as Eingl Angles , Iwys Wessex-men , etc. Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom. As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to Mercia — at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh.

It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole see for instance Rachel Bromwich ed. See also Discussion in Reference The meaning behind the Welsh motto". Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 10 October Henry wrote the same about Wallachia. University of Wales Press.

More on the Etymology of Walden". Laudator Temporis Acti website. Retrieved 29 October Longmans, Green, and Co. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion published Retrieved 28 September Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 24 October BBC Cymru Wales website. Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 17 May Celtic from the West: Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications.

Insularity and Connectivity in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, , pp. Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica. An Atlas of Roman Britain. Blackwell Publishers published A History of Roman Britain 3rd, revised ed. The Works of Gildas and Nennius. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. University of Wales Press , Third Edition, Retrieved 9 September European Journal of Human Genetics. Retrieved 27 November The Medieval March of Wales: The Creation and Perception of a Frontier, — Retrieved 4 October The Coming of the Normans".

Retrieved 5 March A country and principality within the mainland of Britain But Edward II was not an infant when the title was granted; the story is apocryphal and was first recorded in Retrieved 21 September Amgueddfa Cymru — National Museum Wales. Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 26 September Rebirth of a Nation: National Library of Wales. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 25 November Archived from the original on 18 January The drowning of Tryweryn and Capel Celyn". Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 8 January The Fight for Welsh Freedom.

National Assembly for Wales. Archived from the original PDF on 20 April Retrieved 6 April Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 5 November The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 24 August The Monarchy and the Constitution. In his autobiography, the Duke of Windsor complained that, as Prince of Wales, there was 'no specific routine job in the sense, for example, that a vice-president has a job Though I was next in line to the Throne, with all that position implied, I actually possessed no formal state duties or responsibilities.

United Kingdom Parliament website. Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original PDF on 3 September National Assembly for Wales website. Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 19 August Deadlock in vote for first minister". Retrieved 15 October Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 20 November The National Archives website.

Retrieved 3 November Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 23 September Archived from the original on 30 May Her Majesty's Courts Service website. Her Majesty's Courts Service. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 29 February Retrieved 31 December Archived from the original on 6 February Office for National Statistics.

Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 29 January European Land Information Service. Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 12 November The British Cartographic Society. Mount Snowdon's magical mountaintop cafe". Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 26 January The Sea Empress disaster".

The doggerel verse was composed in English, probably for the benefit of visitors from across Offa's Dyke. Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 3 April The Silurian Period of the Paleozoic Era: Archived from the original on 9 March The Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era: Archived from the original on 7 March Locations Worldwide — Navy Oceanography Portal".

Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 13 January Archived from the original PDF on 12 March Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original PDF on 11 March Retrieved 6 September Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 14 August Atlas of the British Flora. Making sense of Wales. University of Wales Swansea. Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 11 October Amgueddfa Cymru — National Museum Wales website. Archived from the original on 5 January The psychology of distance: If you think you have been a victim of dating fraud or any other type of scam, report it to the police and Action Fraud.

If you are ever in doubt about someone you could also report the person to the dating website. They can block them or bar them from the site if they are acting inappropriately or trying to scam people. Most dating websites can be used to find same-sex as well as opposite sex partners. They also have details of local groups around the UK if you want to find a social group or some local support.

See our pages for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people for more information about planning for later life. We all want different things from relationships, so don't make any assumptions about what your partner is looking for. At first it can be hard to tell if they're looking for a casual relationship or a more serious commitment - and you may not be sure of exactly what you want.

There's no magic way of knowing if your relationship will go the distance, but if you have a discussion about what you are hoping for in the future you can see if your expectations match up. Take some time to explain to your family how you feel and why you want to start a new relationship. You might also find that your friends and family aren't keen for you to start dating. This can be especially true of grown up children who may feel that their other parent is being replaced. For more information call Age Cymru Advice on Age Cymru uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience.

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Where can I meet new people?

How do I sign up to online dating websites? Once you feel ready to think about a new relationship you may be wondering where to begin. If you aren't sure what activities are in your area, there are a number of ways you can find this information: Find a website that suits you There are lots of dating websites to try.

Register on the website Some dating websites let you register for free while others may require monthly or yearly fees. Staying safe using dating sites. It can be easy to throw caution to the wind when getting caught up in the excitement of dating, but there are some basic safety precautions you should take: Avoiding online dating fraud Online dating fraud is on the rise and unfortunately scams can take place.

Be aware of the warning signs - for example if the conversation becomes personal very quickly, if they mention money, or if they ask for information such as your full name, address and birth date. See our online scams advice for more information. Things you might need to discuss as your relationship progresses could be: