If all the components of the synapse are correctly positioned, activation of the immune cell will result. Researchers of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research HZI and the Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology BRICS , in collaboration with researchers at the University of Oxford UK , have now simulated the dynamic arrangement of these components using computer models and have subsequently been able to make inferences on the mechanisms involved in the formation of synapses.
Today, the researchers have published their results in the scientific journal Cell Reports. T-cells red and B-cells blue form immunological synapses at their contact point green. Different immune cells are therefore constantly in search of foreign molecules indicating the presence of any pathogen which needs to be destroyed. If one of these cells meets a foreign body, it will integrate parts from it — called antigens — onto its own cell surface and present these to other immune cells: This cell type is responsible for classifying the presented parts as dangerous or harmless and, if necessary, initiating a response against them.
To do this, T-cells make contact with the antigen-presenting immune cells and read information from their surface.
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Both cells form a ring-shaped structure made of different proteins at the point of contact between the cells — termed immunological synapse — over which they can exchange information. At the end of this process the T-cell is either activated or remains inactive.
The T-cell makes contact with the antigen-presenting cell by means of specialized adhesion molecules which initially are randomly distributed over the cell surface. The loose bond formed between the two cell surfaces allows for the binding of T-cell receptors to the presented antigen.
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Where immunological synapses are correctly formed, the receptor molecules are concentrated around a central point whereas the other surface proteins arrange themselves into two rings around this central area. Microscope image shows an immunological synapse. This, however, could not be proved for the other molecules.
Dustin to simulate the formation of synapses using computer models. In these models, they simulated different conditions and influencing factors and were able to demonstrate that the different molecules exert an influence on each other in terms of their arrangement although they do not interact directly.
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